Fenbendazole is a broad-spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic approved for use in numerous animal species. It has a high margin of safety in most species and is well tolerated by experimental animals.
Textbook depictions of cells often portray what appear to be various cellular components floating in amorphous bags of liquid. In fact, cells establish structure through a protein scaffold called the cytoskeleton.
Fenben lab fenbendazol is an effective anthelmintic that acts as a chemotherapeutic agent against many parasites. In addition to its antihelmintic effects, fenbendazole can also induce cell death in cancer cells. It is commonly used in clinical practice to treat patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is a widely available treatment option and is well-tolerated by most patients.
In a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced allergic airway disease, fenbendazole significantly reduced eosinophil counts in the blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. It also decreased levels of ovalbumin-specific IgG1 antibodies in lungs and airways. In vitro, fenbendazole inhibited the activation of eosinophils by blocking phosphatase and protease activity.
The benzimidazole antiparasitic drug fenbendazole can also suppress tumor growth in vitro and attenuate radiation-induced toxicity in human leukemia cells. This effect is caused by the cytotoxic properties of the compound. It also increases cellular respiration and adenosine triphosphate. It is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and converted to a variety of metabolites, including the active fenbendazole sulfoxide. It is then excreted in the feces.
The anthelmintic activity of fenbendazole has been demonstrated in numerous species of laboratory animals, including mice, rats, and rabbits. It has been shown to have efficacy against the nematode Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Baylisascaris procyonis, Crenosoma vulpis, Filaroides tetrathyridiforme, Eucoleus spp, and Taenia spp. It is also effective against trematodes, such as Heterobilharzia americana and Paragonimus kellicotti.
Fenbendazole is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug that also has antitumor activity. It is used in both cell culture and animal models to induce tumor growth arrest or apoptosis. Its mechanism of action is similar to that of hypoxia-selective nitroheterocyclic cytotoxins and radiosensitizers, as well as taxanes. In addition, it has additive cytotoxic effects when administered to cells that are exposed to radiation.
In cell culture, fenbendazole inhibits the formation of microtubules, a protein scaffold that establishes shape and structure in cells. This scaffold is made up of a series of proteins, including tubulin, which is responsible for assembling and disassembling the cytoskeleton. This process is essential for a cell’s ability to move through narrow spaces or transport organelles and cargo within the cell.
A recent study has shown that fenbendazole can suppress cancer in vivo, but there is not enough evidence from clinical trials to confirm this observation. However, it is possible that fenbendazole can improve the effectiveness of other cancer treatments when used in combination with them.
The anthelmintic effect of fenbendazole is related to its binding to b-tubulin, an essential component of the microtubules that form the protein scaffold in cells. The drug interferes with this function, causing the detachment of host cells from the substrate. Unlike the other compounds in this group, fenbendazole does not alter the organic functioning of the host and presents exclusive action as an anthelmintic (Correa, 1999). This property may explain why it is highly effective against parasites that are resistant to conventional drugs.
Fenbendazole works by interfering with the formation of microtubules, a protein scaffold that gives cells their shape and structure. Microtubules are assembled and disassembled depending on the cell’s needs. Often, they are used to transport organelles or cargo into the cell or out of it. However, when these structures become damaged, the cell may die or lose its ability to perform vital functions.
Using a mouse model with a highly aggressive glioblastoma, Tippens found that fenbendazole prevented tumor growth. He then searched the literature and discovered that related drugs such as metronidazole might also work to stall cellular growth. Then he discovered that triclabendazole, another drug in the benzimidazole class, might be even more effective than metronidazole.
This drug is a natural substance that acts as a parasites inhibitor. It inhibits the formation of glyoxal, which is a key sugar in cancer cells. Cancer cells develop an inordinate demand for sugar and switch from oxygen to sugar as their primary source of energy. This process is called glycolysis. Glyoxal is produced in mitochondria, and it has a direct effect on the formation of cellular mitochondria.
Acetonitrile (ACN), heparin, and Hanks’ balanced salt solution were purchased from Thermo Fisher Scientific. Rapamycin was purchased from LC Laboratories (Woburn, MA, USA). Thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide and dimethyl sulfoxide were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Corp. mPEG-b-PCL and fenbendazole were dissolved in sterile, pyrogen-free physiologic saline and added to the medium. Mice were anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine. They were then sealed in stainless steel pressure vessels and gassed with a mixture of 95% nitrogen and 5% carbon dioxide to produce severe hypoxia. Then they were irradiated at 10 Gy.
Fenbendazole (methyl N- (6-phenylsulfanyl-1H benzimidazol-2-yl) carbamate), a broad spectrum anthelmintic in the benzimidazole class, has been used successfully to treat parasites in many animal species. It is available in several forms for veterinary use and is well tolerated by most species. The pharmacokinetics of this drug are very favorable. The drug is absorbed by the stomach and is converted to its active sulfoxide and sulfone metabolites, which are excreted in the feces. It is a highly effective treatment for gastrointestinal parasites, including giardia, roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, the tapeworm genus Taenia (but not effective against Dipylidium caninum), pinworms, aelurostrongylus, and strongyloides.
In the case of Tippens, a patient with non-small cell lung cancer (NSLCC), fenbendazole appears to have stalled tumor growth by blocking the formation of new blood vessels. The drug may also help control other symptoms associated with the disease, such as weight loss and fatigue.
Patients with cancer are often able to obtain medical information about their diseases through social media websites. However, these sites are not vetted by professionals and the quality of information is sometimes questionable. In addition, some patients may be unable to correctly select and filter complex medical information. This can result in incorrect or misleading information. In this case, fenbendazole may have been misinterpreted as an alternative therapy for NSCLC and contributed to the patient’s perceived improvement.